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Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders
Group 13. Cranes and Other Hoisting Equipment
Article 98. Operating Rules

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§4999. Handling Loads.

(a) The qualified person (rigger) shall be trained and capable of safely performing the rigging operation. All loads shall be rigged by a qualified person (rigger) or by a trainee under the direct visual supervision of a qualified person (rigger).
(b) Size of Load. A crane, derrick, or hoist shall not be loaded beyond the rated capacity, except for test purposes. In all operations where the weight of the load being handled is unknown and may approach the rated capacity, there shall be a qualified person (rigger) assigned to determine the weight of the load, unless the crane or derrick is equipped with a load weighing device. The operator shall not make any lift under these conditions until informed of such weight by the qualified person (rigger) assigned to that operation.
(1) Supplemental requirements for mobile cranes and derricks in construction: In all operations where the weight of the load being handled is unknown and may approach the rated capacity, the operator shall verify that the load is within the rated capacity of the equipment by at least one of the following methods:
(A) The weight of the load shall be determined from a source recognized by the industry (such as the load's manufacturer), or by a calculation method recognized by the industry (such as calculating a steel beam from measured dimensions and a known per foot weight), or by other equally reliable means. This information shall be provided to the operator prior to the lift; or
(B) The operator may begin hoisting the load to determine, using a load weighing device, load moment indicator, rated capacity indicator, or rated capacity limiter, if it exceeds 75 percent of the maximum rated capacity at the longest radius that will be used during the lift operation. If it does, the operator shall not proceed with the lift until the operator verifies the weight of the load in accordance with subsection (b)(1)(A).
(c) Attaching the Load.
(1) The load shall be attached to the hook by means of slings or other suitable and effective means which shall be rigged to insure the safe handling of the load.
Note: For additional rigging requirements pertaining to erection of structures, refer to Construction Safety Orders, Section 1710(d). For signal requirements, refer to Section 5001 of these Orders.
(2) Slings shall be freed of kinks or twists before use. Slings shall comply with the requirements of Article 101 of these Orders.
(3) Baskets, tubs, skips, or similar containers used for hoisting bulk materials shall be loaded so as not to exceed their safe carrying capacity.
(4) The hoist rope shall not be wrapped around the load.
(d) Moving the Load. The individual directing the lift shall see that:
(1) The crane is properly leveled for the work being performed and blocked, where necessary;
(2) The load is well secured and properly balanced in the sling or lifting device before it is lifted more than a few inches;
(3) Ropes shall not be handled on a winch head without the knowledge of the operator.
While a winch head is being used, the operator shall be within convenient reach of the power unit control lever.
(e) Before Starting to Hoist:
(1) The hoist rope shall not be kinked.
(2) Multiple part lines shall not be twisted around each other.
(3) The hook shall be positioned over the load in such a manner as to prevent swinging of the load when lifted.
(4) If there is a slack rope condition, the rope shall be properly seated on the drum and in the sheaves.
(f) During Hoisting:
(1) There shall be no sudden acceleration or deceleration of the moving load.
(2) The load, boom, or other parts of the equipment shall not contact any obstruction in a way which could cause falling material or damage to the boom.
(g) Side Loading. Side loading of booms shall be limited to freely suspended loads, and booms shall not be used for dragging loads sideways unless the boom is specifically designed and constructed to withstand such side loading.
(h) Loads shall not be released or detached from a crane or other hoisting apparatus until the qualified person (rigger) detaching the load has verified that the load has been secured or supported to prevent inadvertent movement.
(i) Holding the Load.
(1) When a load of any kind is to be suspended for a period of time exceeding normal lifting operations, the drum holding mechanism shall be used in addition to the brake which shall also be applied.
(2) Cranes, hoists, or derricks shall not be left unattended while the load is suspended unless the load is suspended over water, a barricaded area, or is blocked up or otherwise supported from below during repairs or emergency.
(j) [Reserved]
(k) On wheel-mounted cranes, no loads shall be lifted over the front area except as permitted by the manufacturer or approved by a certified agent.


Note: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.
1. Amendment of subsections (c) and (k) filed 2-13-75; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 75, No. 7).
2. New subsection (i)(3) filed 4-27-79; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 79, No. 17).
3. New subsections (h)(6) and (7) filed 12-12-84; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 84, No. 50).
4. Amendment filed 8-29-86; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 86, No. 39).
5. Repealer of subsection (g) filed 12-11-90; operative 1-10-91 (Register 91, No. 4).
6. New subsection (g) filed 7-25-2001; operative 8-24-2001 (Register 2001, No. 30).
7. New subsection (a), subsection relettering and amendment of newly designated subsections (b), (c)(1)-(2) and (h) filed 1-28-2009; operative 2-27-2009 (Register 2009, No. 5).
8. Amendment of subsection (f)(2) filed 10-2-2012; operative 11-1-2012 (Register 2012, No. 40).
9. Repealer and reservation of subsection (j) filed 1-28-2013; operative 4-1-2013 (Register 2013, No. 5).
10. Amendment of subsection (b), new subsections (b)(1)-(b)(1)(B) and amendment of subsections (i)(1) and (k) filed 7-26-2022; operative 7-26-2022 pursuant to Government Code section 11343.4(b)(3) (Register, No. 30). Filing deadline specified in Government Code section 11349.3(a) extended 60 calendar days pursuant to Executive Order N-40-20 and an additional 60 calendar days pursuant to Executive Order N-71-20.

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