Skip to Main Content

This information is provided free of charge by the Department of Industrial Relations from its web site at These regulations are for the convenience of the user and no representation or warranty is made that the information is current or accurate. See full disclaimer at
Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders
Group 13. Cranes and Other Hoisting Equipment
Article 98. Operating Rules

Return to index
New query

§4994. Hoisting.

(a) Cranes shall not be operated with wheels or tracks off the ground or working surface at any time unless properly bearing on outriggers or stabilizers. Power actuated jacks (outriggers or stabilizers), where used, shall be provided with means to prevent loss of support under load.
(b) Outriggers or stabilizers shall be used when the load to be handled at that particular radius exceeds the rated load without outriggers or stabilizers as given by the certified agent for that crane.
(1) Where floats are used they shall be securely attached to the outriggers or stabilizers.
(2) Outrigger or stabilizer supports shall:
(A) Be strong enough to prevent crushing;
(B) Be free from defects.
(3) Outriggers or stabilizers shall be set in accordance with the crane manufacturer's specified configuration requirements for the capacity chart being used. If the crane manufacturer is no longer in business or if the crane manufacturer's specifications regarding the deployment of outriggers or stabilizers is no longer available, the outriggers or stabilizers shall be deployed as specified by a qualified person.
(4) If needed to support the load of an outrigger or stabilizer so as not to exceed the allowable bearing capacity of the underlying material or to establish a level condition for the crane, timbers, cribbing or other structural members shall be used. When used, timbers, cribbing or other structural members shall be strong enough to prevent crushing and be of such thickness, width, and length as to completely support the outrigger or stabilizer float.
(5) When a crane is equipped with stabilizers, the stabilizers shall be used in accordance with American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B30.22-2010, Section 22-3.2.4, and/or B30.5-2011, Section 5-1.2, which are incorporated herein by reference.
(c) The brakes shall be tested each time a load is 90% or more of the rated load as configured by raising the load a few inches and applying the brakes. In duty cycle and repetitive lifts where each lift is 90% or more of the rated load, this requirement applies to the first lift but not to successive lifts.
(d) The load or the boom shall not be lowered below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on grooved drums and three full wraps on ungrooved drums.
(e) When two or more cranes are used to lift one load, a qualified person, other than the operators, shall direct the operation. This person shall analyze the operation and instruct all personnel involved in the proper positioning, rigging of the load, and the movements to be made. A qualified person shall be in direct audible communication with both crane operators at all times to direct the lifting operation. Where two cranes or more are used to lift one load, the rating chart shall be reduced on each crane by not less than 25 percent, unless equalizer or other acceptable provisions assure safe distribution of both vertical and horizontal load to the cranes involved, in which case a lesser reduction may be applied.
(f) Multiple crane/derrick lifts -- Supplemental requirements.
(1) Plan development. Before beginning a crane/derrick operation in which more than one crane/derrick will be supporting the load, the operation shall be planned. The planning shall meet the following requirements:
(A) The plan shall be developed by a qualified person.
(B) The plan shall be designed to ensure that the requirements of these Orders are met.
(C) Where the qualified person determines that engineering expertise is needed for the planning, the employer shall ensure that it is provided.
(2) Plan implementation.
(A) The multiple-crane/derrick lift shall be directed by a person (lift director) who meets the criteria for both a competent person and a qualified person.
(B) The lift director shall review the plan in a meeting with all workers who will be involved with the operation.


Note: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.
1. Amendment of subsection (a) filed 2-13-75; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 75, No. 7).
2. Amendment filed 8-29-86; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 86, No. 39).
3. New subsections (b)(3)-(5) filed 1-29-2009; operative 2-28-2009 (Register 2009, No. 5).
4. Editorial correction of subsection (b)(3) (Register 2011, No. 8).
5. Amendment of subsections (a)-(b)(2) and (b)(2)(B), repealer of subsection (b)(2)(C), amendment of subsection (b)(3), repealer and new subsection (b)(4) and amendment of subsection (b)(5) filed 5-30-2013; operative 7-1-2013 (Register 2013, No. 22).
6. Amendment of subsections (b)(5) and (c) and new subsections (f)-(f)(2)(B) filed 7-26-2022; operative 7-26-2022 pursuant to Government Code section 11343.4(b)(3) (Register, No. 30). Filing deadline specified in Government Code section 11349.3(a) extended 60 calendar days pursuant to Executive Order N-40-20 and an additional 60 calendar days pursuant to Executive Order N-71-20.

Go BackGo Back to Article 98 Table of Contents